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自動駕駛成人工智能重點

來源: 南方日報網絡版     時間: 2019年06月30日 18:47:58
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(  百)(度)(發)(布)(了)(最)(新)(的)(全)(年)(財)(報)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(不)(出)(意)(外)(的)(成)(為)(財)(報)(的)(核)(心)(。從)(新)(興)(業)(務)(中)(可)(以)(看)(到)(,自)(動)(駕)(駛)(作)(為)(新)(興)(業)(務)(被)(重)(點)(介)(紹)(。那)(么)(在)(歐)(美)(列)(強)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(聲)(勢)(浩)(大)(的)(今)(天)(,中)(國)(的)(人)(工)(智)(能)(能)(否)(幫)(助)(中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(“彎)(道)(超)(車)(”?
  在)(考)(慮)(這)(個)(問)(題)(的)(前)(,我)(們)(先)(要)(知)(道)(中)(國)(的)(人)(工)(智)(能)(已)(經)(達)(到)(了)(什)(么)(水)(平)(?當)(然)(,這)(是)(一)(個)(打)(嘴)(仗)(的)(話)(題)(,畢)(竟)(人)(工)(智)(能)(的)(算)(法)(眾)(多)(,領)(域)(多)(樣)(。所)(以)(筆)(者)(也)(不)(準)(備)(去)(費)(口)(舌)(,只)(是)(說)(幾)(個)(事)(情)(,大)(家)(感)(受)(一)(下)(。
  年)(初)(美)(國)(人)(工)(智)(能)(協)(會)(年)(會)(因)(為)(時)(間)(安)(排)(與)(中)(國)(春)(節)(撞)(車)(,但)(是)(考)(慮)(到)(中)(國)(研)(究)(人)(員)(眾)(多)(,不)(得)(不)(將)(會)(議)(改)(期)(。有)(木)(有)(感)(覺)(出)(中)(國)(在)(人)(工)(智)(能)(技)(術)(領)(域)(的)(重)(要)(地)(位)(?
  另)(一)(個)(例)(子)(,美)(國)(白)(宮)(此)(前)(發)(布)(報)(告)(,表)(示)(“中)(國)(深)(度)(學)(習)(領)(域)(研)(究)(已)(經)(趕)(超)(美)(國)(。”這)(有)(木)(有)(讓)(你)(看)(到)(中)(國)(人)(工)(智)(能)(對)(他)(國)(的)(觸)(動)(?
  好)(吧)(,再)(說)(個)(更)(具)(威)(脅)(性)(的)(評)(價)(。紐)(約)(時)(報)(發)(文)(稱)(,“中)(國)(人)(工)(智)(能)(迅)(速)(進)(步)(,軍)(備)(競)(賽)(正)(在)(緊)(逼)(美)(國)(。”乖)(乖)(,這)(個)(水)(太)(深)(了)(,為)(了)(不)(敏)(感)(,我)(也)(就)(不)(說)(了)(。當)(然)(,我)(也)(不)(知)(道)(哈)(。
  可)(以)(說)(,看)(過)(這)(些)(已)(經)(足)(夠)(反)(映)(中)(國)(人)(工)(智)(能)(水)(平)(在)(不)(斷)(提)(升)(中)(,且)(地)(位)(不)(低)(。不)(過)(,作)(為)(關)(注)(汽)(車)(圈)(的)(人)(,本)(人)(更)(關)(心)(的)(是)(人)(工)(智)(能)(在)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(領)(域)(上)(能)(幫)(助)(中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(“彎)(道)(超)(車)(”嗎)(?
  上)(個)(月)(百)(度)(智)(能)(汽)(車)(亮)(相)(美)(國)(CES,向)(全)(球)(展)(示)(了)(百)(度)(在)(高)(精)(地)(圖)(生)(產)(制)(造)(、自)(動)(駕)(駛)(環)(境)(感)(知)(等)(領)(域)(的)(領)(先)(技)(術)(,并)(向)(全)(球)(發)(布)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(開)(放)(平)(臺)(RoadHackers,個)(人)(感)(覺)(這)(足)(以)(說)(明)(中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(的)(技)(術)(路)(徑)(。
  中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(技)(術)(的)(突)(破)(口)(在)(哪)(?
  在)(展)(開)(這)(個)(話)(題)(前)(,首)(先)(得)(知)(道)(目)(前)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(主)(要)(需)(要)(應)(用)(那)(方)(面)(的)(人)(工)(智)(能)(。
  根)(據)(L3自)(動)(駕)(駛)(定)(位)(、感)(知)(、決)(策)(、控)(制)(的)(需)(要)(。自)(動)(駕)(駛)(首)(先)(要)(有)(強)(大)(的)(計)(算)(感)(知)(系)(統)(。比)(如)(能)(夠)(準)(確)(實)(時)(的)(判)(斷)(路)(面)(的)(各)(種)(標)(示)(、狀)(況)(的)(圖)(像)(識)(別)(體)(系)(,這)(不)(可)(避)(免)(要)(用)(到)(深)(度)(學)(習)(技)(術)(。而)(且)(,為)(了)(具)(有)(距)(離)(感)(知)(,還)(必)(須)(有)(毫)(米)(波)(雷)(達)(、超)(聲)(波)(、激)(光)(定)(位)(雷)(達)(之)(類)(的)(黑)(科)(技)(。(這)(點)(大)(家)(感)(興)(趣)(可)(以)(了)(解)(一)(下)(谷)(歌)(無)(人)(車)(用)(的)(那)(套)(激)(光)(雷)(達)(,絕)(對)(地)(球)(頂)(配)(。)
  另)(外)(,還)(要)(采)(集)(和)(校)(準)(非)(常)(、非)(常)(多)(的)(地)(圖)(、路)(線)(、實)(際)(路)(況)(等)(數)(據)(,也)(就)(是)(精)(準)(的)(定)(位)(一)(輛)(車)(在)(什)(么)(地)(點)(。
  最)(后)(是)(少)(不)(了)(精)(密)(的)(自)(動)(控)(制)(系)(統)(,讓)(汽)(車)(能)(夠)(敏)(捷)(精)(準)(地)(根)(據)(電)(腦)(給)(出)(的)(指)(令)(處)(理)(各)(種)(突)(發)(狀)(況)(。
  基)(于)(以)(上)(基)(本)(的)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(思)(路)(的)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(目)(前)(最)(大)(的)(發)(揮)(領)(域)(主)(要)(集)(中)(在)(感)(知)(與)(數)(據)(采)(集)(和)(校)(對)(上)(。(目)(前)(主)(要)(,未)(來)(就)(不)(好)(說)(了)()
  從)(感)(知)(上)(來)(說)(,最)(為)(重)(要)(的)(就)(是)(識)(別)(行)(駛)(道)(路)(上)(的)(各)(種)(必)(要)(信)(息)(,比)(如)(交)(通)(標)(志)(、道)(路)(線)(,以)(及)(旁)(邊)(的)(車)(輛)(、樹)(木)(等)(等)(,而)(電)(腦)(根)(據)(實)(際)(情)(況)(執)(行)(不)(同)(指)(令)(。所)(以)(感)(知)(的)(重)(要)(性)(很)(高)(,畢)(竟)(這)(玩)(意)(要)(識)(別)(錯)(了)(,輕)(則)(損)(失)(幾)(千)(元)(,嚴)(重)(可)(就)(是)(生)(命)(的)(代)(價)(。不)(過)(要)(達)(到)(極)(高)(的)(識)(別)(速)(度)(,并)(最)(終)(達)(到)(100%準)(確)(程)(度)(,就)(需)(要)(人)(工)(智)(能)(來)(幫)(助)(了)(。
  目)(前)(,感)(知)(識)(別)(主)(要)(需)(要)(使)(用)(諸)(如)(深)(度)(學)(習)(的)(CNN(卷)(積)(神)(經)(網)(絡)()算)(法)(來)(完)(成)(。其)(原)(理)(核)(心)(簡)(單)(說)(就)(是)(對)(圖)(像)(等)(信)(息)(不)(斷)(逐)(層)(分)(級)(,獲)(取)(特)(征)(信)(息)(,并)(進)(行)(特)(征)(學)(習)(,從)(而)(達)(到)(類)(似)(于)(我)(們)(人)(類)(開)(車)(時)(的)(視)(覺)(作)(用)(。
  但)(是)(,由)(于)(路)(況)(千)(變)(萬)(化)(,比)(如)(交)(通)(標)(志)(也)(有)(破)(損)(的)(時)(候)(,道)(路)(線)(也)(有)(看)(不)(清)(的)(時)(候)(,加)(上)(受)(限)(于)(攝)(像)(頭)(像)(素)(、感)(知)(距)(離)(限)(制)(等)(等)(傳)(感)(器)(局)(限)(問)(題)((特)(斯)(拉)(理)(想)(狀)(態)(也)(不)(過)(250米)(的)(感)(知)(范)(圍)(),這)(就)(導)(致)(無)(法)(保)(證)(100%的)(準)(確)(率)(。特)(斯)(拉)(的)(幾)(起)(交)(通)(事)(故)(就)(是)(典)(型)(的)(例)(子)(,所)(以)(,高)(精)(地)(圖)(作)(為)(輔)(助)(就)(有)(了)(必)(要)(性)(。
  高)(精)(度)(地)(圖)(相)(比)(我)(們)(常)(見)(的)(導)(航)(地)(圖)(信)(息)(量)(會)(大)(得)(多)(,畢)(竟)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(車)(需)(要)(精)(確)(的)(知)(道)(在)(路)(上)(的)(位)(置)(,而)(車)(輛)(與)(車)(道)(線)(、馬)(路)(牙)(子)(也)(就)(幾)(十)(厘)(米)(左)(右)(,所)(以)(高)(精)(度)(地)(圖)(的)(絕)(對)(精)(度)(一)(般)(都)(是)(1米)(以)(內)(,而)(如)(果)(需)(要)(車)(道)(和)(車)(道)(、車)(道)(和)(車)(道)(線)(的)(相)(對)(位)(置)(精)(度)(等)(信)(息)(,往)(往)(還)(要)(更)(高)(,比)(如)(百)(度)(的)(高)(精)(度)(地)(圖)(就)(是)(厘)(米)(級)(,而)(且)(還)(含)(有)(每)(個)(車)(道)(的)(坡)(度)(、曲)(率)(、航)(向)(、高)(程)(,側)(傾)(的)(數)(據)(。
  有)(了)(高)(精)(地)(圖)(就)(能)(大)(大)(的)(減)(少)(傳)(感)(器)(等)(系)(統)(實)(時)(運)(算)(的)(負)(擔)(。比)(如)(“路)(右)(側)(有)(一)(個)(限)(速)(60的)(標)(志)(牌)(”,行)(駛)(到)(附)(近)(時)(,因)(為)(高)(精)(度)(地)(圖)(中)(已)(經)(有)(了)(標)(牌)(的)(準)(確)(位)(置)(,車)(載)(攝)(像)(頭)(可)(以)(有)(針)(對)(性)(地)(分)(析)(圖)(片)(中)(有)(標)(志)(標)(牌)(的)(區)(域)(,確)(認)(限)(速)(信)(息)(,免)(去)(全)(畫)(幅)(的)(分)(析)(計)(算)(,從)(而)(減)(少)(運)(算)(量)(。
  有)(了)(高)(精)(地)(圖)(作)(為)(輔)(助)(,感)(知)(準)(確)(率)(和)(效)(率)(就)(會)(大)(幅)(提)(升)(。但)(是)(,高)(精)(地)(圖)(數)(據)(如)(果)(不)(斷)(豐)(富)(就)(涉)(及)(到)(了)(數)(據)(的)(收)(集)(和)(校)(對)(。這)(方)(面)(也)(同)(樣)(可)(以)(開)(始)(利)(用)(人)(工)(智)(能)(作)(為)(幫)(助)(。
  比)(如)(,利)(用)(深)(度)(學)(習)(,百)(度)(高)(精)(地)(圖)(數)(據)(自)(動)(化)(處)(理)(程)(度)(已)(達)(到)(90%,能)(自)(動)(識)(別)(包)(交)(通)(標)(志)(、地)(面)(標)(志)(、車)(道)(線)(、信)(號)(燈)(等)(上)(百)(種)(目)(標)(,相)(對)(精)(度)(達)(0.1-0.2米)(。
  可)(以)(說)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(已)(經)(大)(大)(幫)(助)(中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(技)(術)(的)(成)(熟)(,尤)(其)(是)(中)(國)(相)(關)(人)(工)(智)(能)(技)(術)(廠)(商)(還)(不)(賴)(,并)(且)(對)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(的)(專)(注)(度)(越)(來)(越)(高)(。所)(以)(,中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(無)(論)(是)(技)(術)(嘗)(試)(,還)(是)(車)(廠)(等)(相)(關)(廠)(商)(機)(會)(還)(是)(大)(大)(的)(。
  不)(過)(……,還)(是)(有)(一)(點)(要)(注)(意)(!
  不)(斷)(強)(化)(的)(人)(工)(智)(能)(優)(勢)(
  對)(現)(在)(的)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(技)(術)(廠)(商)(而)(言)(,如)(何)(解)(決)(數)(據)(來)(源)(問)(題)(已)(經)(開)(始)(成)(為)(新)(的)(問)(題)(。畢)(竟)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(需)(要)(的)(數)(據)(維)(度)(太)(多)(,太)(豐)(富)(,而)(且)(不)(同)(國)(家)(、不)(同)(城)(市)(的)(路)(況)(環)(境)(各)(不)(相)(同)(,所)(以)(數)(據)(是)(絕)(對)(的)(重)(點)(,而)(且)(量)(級)(絕)(對)(不)(能)(少)(。備)(受)(技)(術)(宅)(敬)(仰)(的)(特)(斯)(拉)(老)(大)(ElonMusk就)(說)(過)(,沒)(有)(10億)(英)(里)((注)(:約)(16億)(公)(里)()的)(數)(據)(,就)(不)(能)(稱)(有)(足)(夠)(的)(數)(據)(。而)(且)(,10億)(英)(里)(的)(數)(據)(只)(是)(“需)(要)(條)(件)(”(necessarily),而)(非)(“充)(份)(條)(件)(”(sufficient)。
  那)(么)(數)(據)(如)(何)(積)(累)(?谷)(歌)(、百)(度)(地)(圖)(常)(用)(的)(那)(種)(滿)(街)(跑)(的)(地)(圖)(測)(繪)(車)(是)(一)(種)(方)(式)(,但)(是)(對)(于)(像)(高)(精)(地)(圖)(這)(種)(高)(信)(息)(量)(的)(地)(圖)(,還)(需)(要)(專)(用)(的)(測)(繪)(車)(,這)(種)(成)(本)(就)(不)(是)(一)(般)(的)(高)(了)(。之)(前)(,百)(度)(就)(表)(示)(,250輛)(測)(繪)(車)(中)(,可)(用)(于)(高)(精)(度)(地)(圖)(數)(據)(采)(集)(的)(車)(只)(有)(10輛)(。不)(過)(話)(說)(回)(來)(,就)(算)(有)(1千)(輛)(、1萬)(輛)(專)(用)(測)(繪)(車)(也)(存)(在)(數)(據)(不)(實)(時)(、不)(夠)(“新)(鮮)(”的)(問)(題)(。
  當)(然)(,辦)(法)(也)(不)(是)(沒)(有)(。目)(前)(,百)(度)(一)(直)(利)(用)(自)(身)(云)(端)(的)(LearningMap實)(現)(地)(圖)(眾)(包)(,也)(就)(是)(通)(過)(行)(駛)(中)(的)(汽)(車)(車)(載)(傳)(感)(器)(采)(集)(道)(路)(信)(息)(,回)(傳)(云)(端)(后)(補)(充)(、更)(新)(地)(圖)(數)(據)(。而)(且)(,百)(度)(正)(在)(實)(驗)(更)(神)(奇)(的)(技)(術)(,希)(望)(通)(過)(人)(工)(智)(能)(技)(術)(,實)(現)(低)(質)(量)(的)(圖)(像)(數)(據)(更)(新)(高)(質)(量)(的)(高)(精)(地)(圖)(。舉)(例)(說)(就)(是)(,類)(似)(768這)(樣)(的)(超)(低)(分)(辨)(率)(影)(像)(,也)(可)(以)(去)(補)(充)(采)(集)(車)(的)(4K影)(像)(。如)(果)(成)(功)(,即)(使)(像)(素)(質)(量)(不)(高)(的)(影)(像)(也)(可)(以)(充)(分)(利)(用)(,高)(精)(地)(圖)(就)(可)(以)(進)(行)(自)(我)(學)(習)(和)(演)(進)(,最)(終)(實)(現)(高)(精)(地)(圖)(數)(據)(的)(實)(時)(更)(新)(。
  當)(然)(,還)(是)(那)(句)(話)(,眾)(人)(拾)(柴)(火)(焰)(高)(,人)(工)(智)(能)(技)(術)(是)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(的)(核)(心)(競)(爭)(力)(,也)(是)(中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(技)(術)(“彎)(道)(超)(車)(“的)(關)(鍵)(,但)(還)(需)(要)(整)(個)(業)(態)(的)(參)(與)(其)(中)(,尤)(其)(是)(中)(國)(各)(大)(車)(廠)(,可)(以)(說)(也)(是)(最)(直)(接)(的)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(技)(術)(受)(益)(人)(,其)(自)(身)(就)(蘊)(藏)(巨)(大)(的)(數)(據)(資)(源)(,如)(果)(和)(有)(自)(主)(知)(識)(產)(權)(的)(中)(國)(自)(動)(駕)(駛)(技)(術)(廠)(商)(合)(作)(,其)(前)(景)(不)(可)(想)(象)(。
(責)(任)(編)(輯)(:肖)(蒙)(蒙)()
)


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